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Reprogramming the Mind

The word is EPTIFY. Don’t look in the dictionary. It’s too new for the dictionary. But you’d better learn what it implies.

EPTIFY. We do it to you. Stand on Zanzibar by John Brunner

The idea of mind as computer leads to the obvious question: why can't we reprogram the mind? The reprogramming metaphor comes in two major flavors: reprogramming someone else (Mind control), and reprogramming yourself (presumably for greater happiness or success.) Outside of science fiction this proves challenging because of several fundamental difficulties.

How To

Direct approach: Reprogramming the mind by talking to someone (possibly yourself) is like trying to reprogram a mall information kiosk through the touch screen (see The User Interface Analogy.) Perhaps we can also exploit other seemingly intended interfaces such as our appreciation of music, our spiritual sensibilities and yearning for social connection, and the semi-articulate symbolic languages of art, poetry and myth.

Interface hacks: Another possibility is that we can hack the system by exploiting a seemingly accidental interface, a bug or misfeature that is ordinarily mostly harmless. Meditation, and perhaps Hypnosis fall into this category. Meditation somewhat resembles a Denial-of-service attack. This fades over into the next category with body work such as massage, yoga or Tai Chi, and tricks such as sweat lodges and fasting.

Hardware hacks: The third major thread in thought on reprogramming is that we should get out our screwdriver and open up the back of the mall kiosk. That is, we may need a hardware intervention such as drugs or genetic engineering. Though mainstream psychopharmacology carefully distances itself from such radical views, the goals and the means are basically the same.

Given the limitations and side-effects of all these approaches, the comprehensive effort at reprogramming the mind should make use of all three. This is the trinity advocated in The Happiness Hypothesis: cognitive therapy, meditation and antidepressants.

Why it is Hard

Most discussion of mental reprogramming concentrates on the “how to” above, perhaps operating under an assumption that with the right techniques, based on understanding of how the mind works, it will all become straightforward — that we will be able to feel and act more or less however we please, and (more ominously) our controllers could “do it to us.” In reality, there are several serious obstacles faced by would-be mind programmers.

Undocumented Interfaces

What if the only problem with programming the mind is that we don't know how? In the computer analogy, the mind's interface definitely is undocumented; this is a serious, but ultimately surmountable obstacle. This difficulty is more serious than the computer analogy implies, because (unlike any software) the structure of the mind is evolved, so need not make any sort of sense in a human way. As Marvin Minsky noted, “The brain is a hack.” Yet there are several other intractable challenges in mind programming that arise from the mind's design, some accidental and some intentional.


The mind was not designed to run multiple programs, with a computer's easy context switching, so it has neither suitable high-bandwidth interfaces nor the necessary internal signal paths to directly modify the details that would need to be changed. Some behavior is hardwired (though the extent of this is a subject of heated debate, see Nature Versus Nurture), and some important things also seem to be difficult to alter (write once), such as fear learning in the amygdala and the neural remodellings that happen during developmental critical periods.

Metaphor notwithstanding, the brain lacks a precise analog of software. There is a clear distinction between the hardware of the brain and the nonphysical stuff that it represents, but the precise engineering analogy here is between signal processor and signal (see Mind.) Even a worm can adapt its behavior in response to the environment, but learning is not the same as programming. Minds are designed to learn, but they are not designed to be (easily) reprogrammable.


Consider the mall kiosk again. The designer could easily have put a USB port below the screen and added an “advanced settings” menu with a “boot from external media” option. This would surely be convenient for software upgrades, so why didn't they do that? Instead they impose security by passwords and physical locks. The abuse potential of user-reprogrammed mall kiosks is obvious, but humans are in basically the same situation. We must strike some sort of balance between easy access and security. There is a lot of conceptual malware, so we need to be careful, but we also gain vastly from our communication and collaboration with others.

In fact, mind control, or at least behavior control, is not only possible, it is everywhere in our lives. Social psychology experiments such as the Milgram experiment and the Stanford prison experiment show the surprising ease with which most people can be induced to do seemingly unreasonable things merely by asking (in the appropriate social context.) These results are often interpreted as showing our (regrettable) lack of proper moral judgment, which should be remedied by ethics classes, sensitivity training, or bible study. What we see is the workings of social coordination. Humans normally function in a social context, and our continued existence has often depended on our willingness to comply with requests that we do not understand, asking us to do things that we would not normally do.

In the current context of mind reprogramming, the point is that our ability to be influenced is subject to security measures: we must be presented with appropriate cues such as symbols of authority or the appearance of compliance by others. People have paid much attention to the possibility of mind control by political authorities, but all organized groups depend on our potential for being influenced into coordinated action. Religious groups such as churches and cults make particularly broad and heavy use of all known reprogramming techniques, though it is rarely articulated what they are doing and why.

Evolutionary Contingency

So we can see why we wouldn't want others to be able to easily reprogram us, but why shouldn't we be able to reprogram ourselves? Why can't we simply consciously choose to do whatever we will, and to feel however we would wish? And why does feeling matter at all?

A simple (and largely correct) answer is that (as noted above), we just don't happen to have been built that way, and however useful such flexibility of our minds might be, the architecture of our brain is inherited from much simpler animals that entirely lacked conscious thought, and for whom reprogrammability made no sense. While evolution can produce remarkably well-optimized designs, it cannot entirely transcend our historical accidents of origin.

Representational Opacity is the related idea that we cannot have any direct control over (or clear insight into) unconscious processes such as our feelings, intuitions and motivations. We cannot do so because the unconscious is not structured as a logico-symbolic computer with discrete belief-states. It is instead an ad-hoc kludge of semi-regular neural networks and semi-adaptive hardwired subsystems. This is why we can effortlessly make gut judgments about complex situations, yet struggle to explain our conclusions.

Out of the Loop

In some cases our inability to control unconscious processes may also be adaptive–it may help us to succeed in life. We argue above that we are not designed to be programmable. What we now consider is that we are designed not to be programmable. This is most obviously true with life-critical processes such as visceral regulation (see Body Model.)

Also fairly obvious from the perspective of Evolutionary Psychology is that our unconscious perceptions, our emotions and our judgments all function the way that they do because they motivate us to act in ways that are adaptive. That is, they cause us to be successful, having children who may in turn be even more successful. The goal of evolution is not to make us happy — quite the opposite. We are evolved to be neutral or miserable much of the time. If by some drug or other means of reprogramming, we are deprived of all that carefully designed misery, then we might well choose to abandon the arduous tasks of reproduction and social engagement, and might instead withdraw from the world, selecting ourselves out of the gene pool, like Milton's Lotos Eaters, or the Shakers. We do not claim that such a choice would be wrong, only that such views will always have a minority mind share, simply because moderately discontented people are so much more motivated to propagate their ideas and their genes.

Less obviously, and more controversially, there are many life decisions that are far too important to be left to conscious whim. Evolutionary Psychology predicts that mate selection is one such area, and there have been some suggestive results. This is a large area of Intentional Opacity in the human psyche.

Philosophic Digression

Free Will

Note that the idea of self-reprogramming makes no sense without the understanding that there are some constraints on conscious free will. We definitely cannot feel as we choose, and frequently have difficulty acting as we choose. The target of self-reprogramming is clearly the Unconscious layers of mental processing, which do almost all of the work in the mind (see Level Map.)


All of these reprogramming techniques have been in use for thousands of years, though there have been some recent advances in hardware interventions (synthetic drugs, direct brain stimulation.) So reprogramming is largely a groovy re-branding of an old bag of tricks (see NLP.) This long history makes it seem rather unlikely that there will be any sudden dramatic advances in non-hardware interventions. The troublesome nature of emotions and of the unconscious has also been a major concern of the world-wide wisdom literature, and of early philosophy. See, for example, the chariot allegory in Plato's Phaedrus.

Categorizing Techniques

There is really no clear division between between the three categories of reprogramming techniques presented above, but such distinctions are still useful because they reflect the position of a particular intervention on scale of design intent. When we say that a human characteristic is intentional, we mean that it is useful treat it as a feature designed for some purpose, and that this is coherent even in the absence of an actual intelligent creator because the action of evolutionary adaptation creates this purposefulness (see Intentional Design.)

In a high-level direct approach like talk therapy, using a clearly intended interface, we expect that the going is likely to be slow, and the effects modest. With a low-level hardware hack such as a drug, effects may be sudden and dramatic, but there can also be serious side-effects. Interface hacks occupy an intermediate position. It is unlikely that they will create fast easy change (or they would have been selected against), but it is possible that by diligent practice some individuals may make dramatic changes.

The distinction between the direct approach and interface hacks can't be appreciated without Evolutionary Psychology, because without applying evolutionary theory one cannot say whether a behavior is adaptive (appears intentional) or not. While this distinction does have some validity, remember that (just as in programming) today's hack, if proven useful enough, may be selected for, and become tomorrow's recognized interface.

If the distinction between direct interventions and hacks goes unrecognized, then the difference between mind and body approaches is often exaggerated. This probably comes in part from the Level Confusion in an assumed Mind/Body Dualism. Once we concede that mind arises from the body, then it is clear that any intervention that has any effect whatsoever must necessarily change the physical state of the body. This is equally true of talk therapy and drugs.


steven richard mcdonell, 2011/09/18 12:44

i beleave that although reprograming of the mind is not only possable but plossable,we should not try to fix something that isnt broken,to say that the side effects of reprograming of the mind “or computer wich would be more acurate term” is anything but devistating or desaterous effects would compeatly inacurate. Yes if you were to drug,hypnotise,feed subliminale thoughts through both your conscience state and subconscience state,by an athority figure “parent or loved one, police officer or teacher” as well as couse head truama or axcessing supressed memories of your child hood,or truamatic events from your past. incorperated with yoga,martial arts,any phisical labour,vissual stimulants,I>E:hand eye coordination,or nervious pathways.that you could reprogram the brain but if done incorectly you could turn yourself into a sycopath or mass murder,maybe even leaving your self in a delussional state unable to return to your previous state.therefore the real question becomes should we be playing god with our brains, wouldn't it be more logical to simply descover what we wished to change about ourselfs and make a concionce effort to do so through out our lives on a dayly baises, there by reprogaming ourselves in the manner that coincides with our human nature.If you were to jump of a building you would simply fall, but if you were to take the time to build a hand glider and learn how to use it, then you would be able to make that same jump with out falling but gliding effortlessly through the air.somethings a person should not tamper with,would you stick a butter knife in a light socket,of course not because you wouldn't want to damage your body or even possably lossing your life, how do you know that the reprograming of the human brain could not have this possable side effect.”learn to walk before you run!”

Optimus Prime, 2014/04/23 20:23

Sir, you should program yourself to learn how to spell. How atrocious.

gpharman, 2014/11/20 06:27

He is saying adult things but just can't spell them.

Fabrice lecouffe, 2014/04/01 01:45

Today is the appropriate day. Fish is the symbol of Happiness: Human “being”, THE movies playlist! :.) Human “being” uses very strange behaviour!

• “Matrix” movie: Human “being” prefers to live into Subjective Reality instead of Factual Reality. From all histories, facts shown the Human “being” persistence to not trust into “nearby”[1] but prefer belief into “very far strangers ones” [2]… and paradoxically, feel afraid about what “he” don’t know [living into his limited comfort zone]!

[1] ourself, familiar, people from his activity sector, woman from woman, man from man, people from his nationality, etc.

[2] what does not “look like me” or “my familiar”. As from subjective vision process, I will transfer my personal limitation to what is “similar/familiar” to me.

- That's why, from Human “being”, the following sentence will be always right:

“No man[3] can be Prophet in is country”… familiar fields, etc.

[3] Matter in the general sense as [1]

Welcome this day that “he” will see the Factual Reality! :.)

• “Groundhog day” movie: Facts again… when this Human “being” will learn from his repetition… and the same repetition from the nearby and far others… about the same repeated topic? When this Human “being” will learn from the becoming? Welcome this day that the tomorrow will not be another day but an additional day! :.)

• “Cloud Atlas” movie: The factual world disorder results again from subjective interpretation. When from Descartes’s search after Truth, he introduces the conscious “as internal testimony” [conscientia… conscientia vel interno testimonio], “the popular” subjective vision preferred to choose the meaning of “consciousness is an exclusive intimate world”. Thus ruling away, the sense from Latin word composition con=together + scio= Knowledge [with big K] > Consciousness = A knowledge from world network lived through intimate link.

This meaning [interpretation] is the valet of compare, separate and opposite, while the definition [sense] is the spokespersons of fitting, complementary and networking. The first brings: competing and conflict, whereas the second: engendering and unify. Welcome this day that human “being” switch from Undergo to Profit! :.)

• “Limitless” movie: When some people find fire to improve life, others use to fear and doubt about it. Human “being” seems to be the shadow of “Human Be”!

Welcome to this day that Factual Reality will be the axis of life and Subjective interpretations: the additional flavours of everybody. Only one central Factual Reality for 360° spherical interpretations. Love is the life keystone; it’s a fact into the whole histories and around the world.

Today is a great day, the fish’s day! Thanks you for reading [I’m really welcome your comments].

Fabrice Lecouffe

Jude Lasserre, 2014/06/15 15:17

Back on the '70's there was a book published named “Reprogramming the Human Mind” and was extremely aware. I benefitted from the book and the basic theories which line up with just about all University studies. Good to see the good news spreading - This is a great site for exchange of new or altered approaches for each person. Meaning that each person learns a different way and the most effective tools are basic and easy to understand and put into daily life.

mr. robot, 2014/09/01 01:46

Act like a robot. Act with logic. Act using science. Act using math. Dont contradict yourself. Dont lie to yourself. Dont believe in symbols. Symbols are stupid. Reprogram your mind. Get rid of barriers. Which is correct evolution or creation? Choose between BAD or GOOD. Achieve your goals.

christy foley, 2015/04/13 19:36

hey..ever heard of someone reseting people…and learned it from the future

christy foley, 2015/04/13 19:48

hey..ever heard of someone reseting people…and learned it from the future

Lou Montesdeoca, 2016/02/07 11:11

Amazing, love it.

Paul, 2016/02/23 21:02

I want to help people help themselves. I want to help be to be able to reach into their mind and get rid off the bad and replace it with good. Self-destructive behaviors and addictions leads to the destruction of others and one's own life. I believe if many people were given the chance to look inside themselves. To see what they don't like and get rid of it. I believe the ability to reprogram yourself will lead to the reduction of many problems and crimes. If anyone can direct me, please! Thank you in advance.

Yetak Silleb, 2016/11/03 20:52


You and I seem to have the same goal. (Help me help you help others) I did a lot of research on HOW to do this. My conclusions suggest that you begin with an induction to letting your conscious mind relax through habits of meditation.

         To begin, start with this video from Youtube and get familiar with it :

Once you understand a bit more of how the brain is actually working, then you can manipulate it and provide powerful positive suggestions in the sub-conscious mind that blossom and grow into the current Conscious movements/actions/words.

In example: a gentleman by the name of Nimja. He takes it in a more sexualized context but rather effective. His site is

I have been experimenting on my consenting roommate( we will name him “R”) . R has made improvements with Social phobias, quitting smoking, eating healthier, and taking more risks/initiative at his job working for a Corporation.

This is truely an art in which you have to be ULTRA careful of taking any form of person “DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE” or be in any malice.

Thank you for reading and possibly following along :)

-Yetak (email me for more links.

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analysis/mind/reprogramming.txt · Last modified: 2015/09/08 08:52 by ram